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Global Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgical Missions

Each year, members of the Division provide goiter surgery in underserved regions, where they not only care for patients but also train local physicians to work toward sustainable health care for patients suffering from goiter and other conditions. Click here to learn more about the global thyroid missions.

Publications and Resources

The Division of Thyroid surgery has provided various books, paper, and other resources. See thyroid publications here.

Nerve Monitoring Program

Voice Preservation in Thyroid Surgery

Deme Venancio, Conor Birmingham, Gregory Randoplh, M.D., Alexandra Tarzikhan, Mo Quintanilla and Stephanie Patricio.
Deme Venancio, Conor Birmingham,
Gregory Randolph, M.D., Alexandra Tarzikhan,
Mo Quintanilla and Stephanie Patricio.

Surgery on the thyroid gland requires special attention and expertise because of the close proximity of the thyroid to the recurrent laryngeal nerves (nerves that power the vocal cords). The vocal cords rest within the larynx in the neck and move as we speak, swallow and breathe. If the nerves that innervate these structures are damaged during thyroid surgery, the patient’s ability to speak, swallow and breathe can be significantly affected.

This complication, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, occurs in up to 5-10% of thyroid surgeries nationally. Injury can occur on one side (when surgery is performed on one side of the thyroid) or on both sides (if the entire thyroid is removed).  This can lead to vocal cord paralysis, a very significant complication of thyroid surgery. (see diagram below).

 drawing on the RLN and thyroid gland

If the nerve is injured on only one side, patients typically experience a reduction in the power of their voices, often resulting in a breathy voice, which sometimes sounds like a whisper. They may also experience swallowing problems, termed “dysphagia.” Patients with dysphagia can cough when they drink and sometimes when they eat solid food. Since a functioning vocal cord also serves to protect the airway, coughing can also occur when saliva mistakenly travels into the airway, even when the patient is not eating.

If the recurrent laryngeal nerve is injured on both sides, breathing can be dangerously affected. With bilateral paralysis, the vocal cords come to rest in the midline, and the patient’s breathing is usually severely impaired. In these cases, patients often require tracheotomy tubes to breathe.

In addition to the recurrent laryngeal nerves, the superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerves, is also susceptible to injury. In these cases, voice projection and especially singing and the upper registers of voice can be affected, making thyroid surgery especially intimidating for professional voice artists.

A pioneer in voice preservation during thyroid surgery, Dr. Randolph has developed and researched neural monitoring technology to stimulate these nerves and to monitor their function during surgery. He has written numerous research articles, authored a textbook and directs surgical education courses at Harvard Medical School, teaching surgeons throughout the country and around the world in techniques of neural monitoring during thyroid surgery.  Surgeons in the thyroid division at Mass. Eye and Ear routinely use nerve monitoring technology during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. 

Nerve monitoring technicians reviewing neural output during thyroid surgery.
Nerve monitoring technicians
reviewing neural output during
thyroid surgery.


Mass. Eye and Ear has a unique nerve monitoring program in which highly trained technicians monitor the nerve signals in the operating room and communicate directly with the operating surgeon during the procedure. In many hospitals where nerve monitoring is also performed, the surgeon must not only concentrate on the surgery but must perform the nerve monitoring function themselves simultaneously. The program at Mass. Eye and Ear allows the surgeon to concentrate on the surgical procedure while technicians are expertly monitoring nerve function.

Physicians in the Division of Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery at Mass. Eye and Ear established the neural monitoring program in 1998 and recently performed its 3,000th successful case. They share their expertise through global health initiatives around the world, including bringing this monitoring technology to Africa, China, Russia and India.

Please see medical articles below and feel free to contact the department if you have further questions.

 The drawing on this page was published in "Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands", Randolph, GW, Page 736, Copyright Elsevier (2012).