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3-D Virtual Model of the Incudostapedial Joint in Human

The 3-D model is a surface rendering of the structures that make up the incudostapedial complex: stapes tendon, stapes, distal incus including the pedicle and the plate, and the joint capsule. The model was created from 85 serial archival histological sections of the same 14 year old male in Temporal Bone and the Round Window models.

Several anatomical features become more obvious when viewed in 3-D: in the distal incus, the bony connection to the plate by a pedicle of bone, the extent to which the capsular ligament wraps around the pedicle and plate, the notch in the bone of the distal incus on the anterior side below the level of the pedicle which corresponds to an extension of the capsule ligament on the anterior side. There are more blood vessels on the anterior side of the distal incus.


Windows (XP):


MacOS X Mavericks (10.9) 64bit:

  • Download and uncompress the package.
  • Double click on the application to run the program.

When running the program for the first time, the OS will complain that this program is from an unidentified developer. Just right click on the application, select "Open", then choose "Open" in the pop-up window. You only need to do this for the first time.

     3-DViewer of the Incudostapedial Joint Complex Model (Mac ~31MB)


MacOS X (10.5):

Quick Guide to 3-D Surface Viewer

Download EPL 3DViewer Only: