Age-related Macular Degeneration
Figure: Age-related Macular Degeneration. (a) A schematic cartoon of a normal human eye compared with an eye with AMD (lower) depicting deposits of drusen (c) (yellow spots) and choroidal neovascularization with subretinal hemorrhage in the macula (e). A schematic cross-section of a normal eye (b), showing retinal neuronal layers, RPE, Bruch’s membrane and choroid vessels. (d) In AMD, the intimate relation between photoreceptors, RPE and choroid is disrupted by drusen (lipid and cellular debris-containing deposits). The formation of drusen separates RPE from Bruch’s membrane and the underlying choroidal vessels in association with RPE atrophy and photoreceptor degeneration (hallmarks of dry AMD). (f) In wet AMD with choroidal neovascularization, abnormal leaky choroidal vessels proliferate and penetrate the altered Bruch’s membrane protruding into the subretinal space, causing hemorrhage and rapid loss of vision.